Since the last post, we have extended the reference test functionality
in the Python
Major changes (as of version 0.2.5, at the time of writing) include:
- Introduction of a new
ReferenceTestclass that has significantly more functionality from the previous (now deprecated)
- Support for
pytestas well as
- Available from PyPI
pip install tdda, as well as from Github.
- Support for comparing CSV files.
- Support for comparing pandas DataFrames.
- Support for preprocessing results before comparison (beyond simply dropping lines) in reference tests.
- Greater consistency between parameters and options for all comparison methods
- Support for categorizing kinds of reference data and rewriting only
nominated categories (with
- More (meta) tests of the reference test functionality.
Background: reference tests and WritableTestCase
We previously introduced the idea of a reference test
with an example in the post First Test,
and then when describing the
A reference test is essentially the TDDA equivalent of a software system test
(or integration test), and is characterized by:
- normally testing a relatively large unit of analysis functionality (up to and including whole analytical processes)
- normally generating one or more large or complex outputs that are complex to verify (e.g. datasets, tables, graphs, files etc.)
- sometimes featuring unimportant run-to-run differences that mean testing equality of actual and expected output will often fail (e.g. files may contain date stamps, version numbers, or random identifiers)
- often being impractical to generate by hand
- often needing to be regenerated automatically (after verification!) when formats change, when bugs are fixed or when understanding changes.
WritableTestCase class that we made available in the
library provided support for writing, running and updating such reference
tests in Python by extending the
unittest.TestCase class and providing
methods for writing reference tests and commands for running (and,
where necessary, updating the reference results used by) reference tests.
Deprecating WritableTestCase in Favour of ReferenceTest
Through our use of reference testing in various contexts and projects
at Stochastic Solutions, we have ended up producing three different
implementations of reference-test libraries, each with different
capabilities. We also become aware that an increasing number of Python
developers have a marked preference for
wanted to support that more naturally. The new
brings together all the capabilities we have developed, standardizes
them and fills in missing combinations while providing idiomatic
patterns for using it both in the context of
We have no immediate plans to remove
WritableTestCase from the
library (and, indeed, continue use it extensively ourselves), but encourage
people to adopt
ReferenceTest instead as we believe it is superior
in all respects.
Availability and Installation
You can now install the
tdda module with pip:
pip install tdda
and the source remains available under an MIT licence from github with
git clone https://github.com/tdda/tdda.git
tdda library works under Python 2.7 and Python 3 and includes
reference test functionality mentionedabove,
constraint discovery and verification,
including a Pandas version
and automatic discovery of regular expressions from examples
(rexpy, also available online at here).
After installation, you can run TDDA's tests as follows:
$ python -m tdda.testtdda ............................................................................ ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ran 76 tests in 0.279s
Getting example code
However you have obtained the
tdda module, you can get a copy of its
reference test examples by running the command
$ python -m tdda.referencetest.examples
which will place them in a
of your current directory. Alternatively, you can specify that you want them
in a particular place with
$ python -m tdda.referencetest.examples /path/to/particular/place
There are variations for getting examples for the constraint generation and validation functionality, and for regular expression extraction (rexpy)
$ python -m tdda.constraints.examples [/path/to/particular/place] $ python -m tdda.rexpy.examples [/path/to/particular/place]
Example use of ReferenceTest from unittest
Here is a cut-down example of how to use the
unittest, based on the example in
referencetest-examples/unittest. For those who prefer
there is a similar
pytest-ready example in
from __future__ import unicode_literals import os import sys import tempfile from tdda.referencetest import ReferenceTestCase # ensure we can import the generators module in the directory above, # wherever that happens to be FILE_DIR = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(__file__)) PARENT_DIR = os.path.dirname(FILE_DIR) sys.path.append(PARENT_DIR) from generators import generate_string, generate_file class TestExample(ReferenceTestCase): def testExampleStringGeneration(self): actual = generate_string() self.assertStringCorrect(actual, 'string_result.html', ignore_substrings=['Copyright', 'Version']) def testExampleFileGeneration(self): outdir = tempfile.gettempdir() outpath = os.path.join(outdir, 'file_result.html') generate_file(outpath) self.assertFileCorrect(outpath, 'file_result.html', ignore_patterns=['Copy(lef|righ)t', 'Version']) TestExample.set_default_data_location(os.path.join(PARENT_DIR, 'reference')) if __name__ == '__main__': ReferenceTestCase.main()
These tests illustrate comparing a string generated by some code to a reference string (stored in a file), and testing a file generated by code to a reference file.
We need to tell the
ReferenceTestclass where to find reference files used for comparison. The call to
set_default_data_location, straight after defining the class, does this.
The first test generates the string
actualand compares it to the contents of the file
string_result.htmlin the data location specified (
ignore_substringsparameter specifies strings which, when encountered, cause these lines to be omitted from the comparison.
The second test instead writes a file to a temporary directory (but using the same name as the reference file). In this case, rather than
ignore_stringswe have used an
ignore_patternsparameter to specify regular expressions which, when matched, cause lines to be disregarded in comparisons.
There are a number of other parameters that can be added to the various
assert...methods to allow other kinds of discrepancies between actual and generated files to be disregarded.
Running the reference tests: Success, Failure and Rewriting
If you just run the code above, or the file in the examples, you should see output like this:
$ python test_using_referencetestcase.py .. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ran 2 tests in 0.003s OK
or, if you use pytest, like this:
$ pytest ============================= test session starts ============================== platform darwin – Python 2.7.11, pytest-3.0.2, py-1.4.31, pluggy-0.3.1 rootdir: /Users/njr/tmp/referencetest-examples/pytest, inifile: plugins: hypothesis-3.4.2 collected 2 items test_using_referencepytest.py .. =========================== 2 passed in 0.01 seconds ===========================
If you then edit
generators.py in the directory above and make some change
to the HTML in the
preferably non-semantic changes, like adding an extra space before
</html>) and then rerun the tests, you should get failures.
Changing just the
$ python unittest/test_using_referencetestcase.py .1 line is different, starting at line 33 Expected file /Users/njr/tmp/referencetest-examples/reference/string_result.html Note exclusions: Copyright Version Compare with "diff /var/folders/w7/lhtph66x7h33t9pns0616qk00000gn/T/actual-string_result.html /Users/njr/tmp/referencetest-examples/reference/string_result.html". F ====================================================================== FAIL: testExampleStringGeneration (__main__.TestExample) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Traceback (most recent call last): File "unittest/test_using_referencetestcase.py", line 62, in testExampleStringGeneration ignore_substrings=['Copyright', 'Version']) File "/Users/njr/python/tdda/tdda/referencetest/referencetest.py", line 527, in assertStringCorrect self.check_failures(failures, msgs) File "/Users/njr/python/tdda/tdda/referencetest/referencetest.py", line 709, in check_failures self.assert_fn(failures == 0, '\n'.join(msgs)) AssertionError: 1 line is different, starting at line 33 Expected file /Users/njr/tmp/referencetest-examples/reference/string_result.html Note exclusions: Copyright Version Compare with "diff /var/folders/w7/lhtph66x7h33t9pns0616qk00000gn/T/actual-string_result.html /Users/njr/tmp/referencetest-examples/reference/string_result.html". ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ran 2 tests in 0.005s
As expected, the string test now fails, and the
library suggests a command you can use to
diff the output: because
the test failed, it wrote the actual output to a temporary file. (It
reports the failure twice, once as it occurs and once at the end.
This is deliberate as it's convenient to see it when it happens if the
tests take any non-trivial amount of time to run, and convenient to
collect together all the failures at the end too.)
Because these are HTML files, I would probably instead open them both
open command on Mac OS) and visually inspect them. In
these case, the pages look identical, and
diff will confirm that the
changes are only those we expect:
$ diff /var/folders/w7/lhtph66x7h33t9pns0616qk00000gn/T/actual-string_result.html /Users/njr/tmp/referencetest-examples/reference/string_result.html 5,6c5,6 < Copyright (c) Stochastic Solutions, 2016 < Version 1.0.0 — > Copyright (c) Stochastic Solutions Limited, 2016 > Version 0.0.0 33c33 < </html > — > </html>
In this case
- We see that the copyright and version lines are different, but we used
ignore_stringsto avoid say that's OK
- It shows us the extra space before the close tag.
If we are happy that the new output is OK and should replace the previous
reference test, you can rerun with the
$ python unittest/test_using_referencetestcase.py -W Written /Users/njr/tmp/referencetest-examples/reference/file_result.html .Written /Users/njr/tmp/referencetest-examples/reference/string_result.html . ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ran 2 tests in 0.003s OK
Now if you run them again without
-W, the tests should all pass.
You can do the same with
pytest, except that in this case you need to use
pytest does not allow short flags.
Other kinds of tests
Since this post is already quite long, we won't go through all the other options, parameters and kinds of tests in detail, but will mention a few other points:
In addition to
assertFileCorrectthere are various other methods available:
assertFilesCorrectfor checking that multiple files are as expected
assertCSVFileCorrectfor checking a single CSV file
assertCSVFilesCorrectfor checking multiple CSV files
assertDataFramesEqualto check equality of Pandas DataFrames
assertDataFrameCorrectto check a data frame matches data in a CSV file.
assertmethods accept the various optional parameters, including:
lstrip— ignore whitespace at start of files/strings (default
rstrip— ignore whitespace at end of files/strings (default
kind— optional category for test; these can be used to allow selective rewriting of test output with the
preprocess— function to call on expected and actual data before comparing results
We'll add more detail in future posts.
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